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Basic Information on uvgains


Task: uvgains
Purpose: Create baseline-based channel gains from averaged uv-data
Categories: uv analysis

        UVGAINS averages uv-data, and creates channel gains for each
        baseline for either spectral line or wideband channels. The
        channel gains are written into the output averaged uv-data and
        are used to correct for bandpass or closure errors in the data.
        UVGAINS can also be used to make autocorrelation ON/OFF scans,
        and fit polynomials to spectral baselines.
        The channel gains are applied when copying or imaging the uv-data.
        To apply the channel gains to another uv-data file, use COPYHD to
        copy the channel gains items (cgains, ncgains, ncbase) or wideband
        gains items (wgains, nwgains, nwbase) into the other uv-data file.
        The channel or wideband gains should only be transfered if the
        uv-data files use the same correlator configuration.
        In general the gains are applied automatically by Miriad tasks when
        plotting (uvplt, uvspec), copying (uvcat, uvcal, uvaver, uvgains),
        or imaging (invert). The channel gains and wideband gains are not
        interpolated and can only be applied if all the channels are used,
        i.e. in plotting, or imaging all the channels. To plot or process
        other line types the channel gains must first be applied by copying
        the channel gains into the Miriad dataset to be corrected (copyhd),
        and writing all the channels into a new Miriad dataset (uvcat, uvcal).
 
        Examples:
 
        To derive the channel gains relative to the 1st wideband channel:
            uvgains vis=mars.12apr out=pass interval=1000 ref=wide,1
 
        To apply the gains to another file:
            copyhd in=pass out=omc1.12apr items=ncgains,cgains,ncbase
        (gpcopy can also be used to copy the channel gains)
 
        To plot the passband corrected spectra (must plot all channels):
            uvspec vis=omc1.12apr device=/xw
 
        To plot the spectra without the passband correction:
            uvspec vis=omc1.12apr device=/xw options=nopass
 
        To process other line types, first write a corrected dataset:
            uvcal vis=omc1.12apr out=omc1.12apr.pass options=nowide
        (items nwgains,nwbase,wgains are needed to correct the wideband)
 
        To make ON/OFF scans for autocorrelation data:
            uvgains vis=off out=passband
            gpcopy vis=passband out=on
 
        The entire ON/OFF scan can be plotted:
            uvspec vis=on device=/xw
 
        The passband must be applied before further processing:
            uvcat vis=on out=on-off
 
        To fit the spectral baselines in autocorrelation data:
            uvgains vis=on-off  options=window,polyfit device=/xw
                badchan=(where the spectral lines are) out=

Key: vis
        The name of the input uv-data file.

Key: select
        The normal uv selection commands. The default is use everything.
        See the help on select for more details.

Key: line
        The normal uv linetype in the form:
          line,nchan,start,width,step
        See the help on line for more details.
        The default is all channels (or all wide channels if there are no
        spectral channels). The output will consist of only spectral or
        wideband data (but not both).
        The data to be corrected must use the same line type.
        Only un-averaged channel data can be used with options=polyfit.

Key: ref
        The normal reference linetype, in the form:
          line,start,width
        The channel or wideband gains can be determined relative to the
        reference line before averaging the data. This may be the best method
        in the case of high SNR or rapid antenna gain fluctuations. In this
        case no gain corrections should be applied: options=nocal,nopol
        Using a reference line and applying gains does not make sense.
        The default is no reference line.

Key: stokes
        If a value is given, uvgains converts the input into the required
        polarizations before writing to the output. Default is to copy
        across the polarizations present in the input files.

Key: interval
        Time averaging interval, in minutes. The default is 0. (i.e. no
        averaging). The channel gains are derived from the first average.
        The uv-data can be averaged into several intervals to see how
        cgains or wgains change with time. A large interval averages each
        occurance of each 'source'.

Key: out
        The name of the output uv data set. No default.

Key: options
        This gives extra processing options. Several options can be given,
        each separated by commas. They may be abbreviated to the minimum
        needed to avoid ambiguity. Possible options are:
           'nocal'      Do not apply the gains file. By default, UVGAINS
                        applies the gains file in copying the data.
           'nopol'      Do not apply polarization corrections. By default
                        UVGAINS corrects for polarization cross-talk.
           'dopass'     Apply bandpass corrections. By default UVGAINS
                        does not correct for the shape of the bandpass.
           'polyfit'    Use polynomial fits to the averaged data to derive
                        the channel gains.
           'window'     Fit polynomial to each spectral window.
                        Default is to fit all channels.
           'dsb'        Fit polynomial to each sideband for double sideband
                        spectra. 'dsb' and 'window' are mutually exclusive.
           'scalar'     Fit polynomial to amplitude and phase. Default is
                        to fit (real,imag).
           'unwrap'     Attempt to extend phases beyond -180 to 180 degrees
                        for 'scalar' polynomial fit.
           'noamp'      Re-normalize the gains to the average amplitude on
                        each baseline. i.e. do not force amplitude closure.
                        The default normalizes the gains to obtain unit
                        amplitude on all baselines. i.e. amplitude closure.

Key: device
        PGPLOT device for polynomial fits. The default is to ask user.

Key: nxy
        Two values. Number of plot windows in x and y, Default nx=1, ny=nx.

Key: npoly
        Two values to specify the order of the Lagrange polynomial fit to
        the real & imaginary, or amplitude & phase of the averaged uv-data.
        Different values can be given for each window.
        The maximum is 8th order polynomial. Default 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
        If just two values are given, these values are used for each window.

Key: badchan
        For options=polyfit
        Number of ranges of bad channels followed by list of up to 20 pairs
        of numbers to specify range of channels to exclude in polyfit.
        e.g. to exclude 2 center channels in eight 64-channel windows, use:
        badchan=8,32,33,96,97,160,161,224,225,288,289,352,353,416,417,480,481

Key: endchan
        For options=polyfit
        Number of channels to drop from window edges in polyfit. Default=4.

Generated by miriad@atnf.csiro.au on 21 Jun 2016